Gusle are also indirectly important to the whole of Western civilization. The Homeric Iliad and the Odyssey are the generally considered foundational works of literature of Western civilization along with the Torah and the Christian Bible.
As the verses pertain to a war and events long before the abjad script was known to the Greeks, it was proposed that Homeric hymns were sung, not written, and were passed down through generations of singing epic bards, who were, like Homer, often blind. This was finally proven as probable in the 19th century when the German classicist Heinrich Schliemann discovered the gusle tradition not far from Greece after observing a Serbian bard reciting a lengthy poem in a similar style. There is no consensus about the origin of the instrument.
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Sachs, believe that the gusle has an Oriental origin, brought to Europe in the 10th century via the Islamic cultural wave. The word Gusle comes from the Old Slavic word "gosl" for fiber. In the parlance of the South Slavs, in addition to the plurale tantum femininum "gusle" that has prevailed as a lexeme, even the older "gusli" , which is found in the area of the middle Drina River region to Arilje and throughout Montenegro.
The term "gusle" by Alberto Fortis has been introduced into European literature. The gusle consists of a wooden sound box , the maple being considered as the best material therefore often the instrument is referred to as "gusle javorove" - maple gusle , covered with an animal skin and a neck with an intricately carved head. The string is made of thirty horsehairs. The instrument is held vertically between the knees, with the left hand fingers on the neck.
The varieties of the guslar music are based on cultural basis; the content of the stories of each ethnic group is different, as different epic poems are used to accompany the instrument. There is minor differing characteristics of vocality in the regions of Southeast Europe. The design of the instrument is identical; only the design of the neck and head varies with ethnic or national motives Serbian gusle has Serbian motif, etc.
The gusle instrumentally accompanies heroic songs epic poetry in the Balkans. The Serbian gusle has one or two strings and is usually made of maple wood. A guslar is an individual capable of reproducing and composing poems about heroes and historical events to the accompaniment of this instrument, usually in the decasyllable meter. Polish poets of the 17th century mentioned the gusle in their works. In addition Sebastian describes the performance, explaining that the guslar would hold the gusle between his knees and goes into a highly emotional artistic performance with a sad and dedicated expression on his face.
The gusle has played a significant role in the history of Serbian epic poetry because of its association with the centuries-old patriotic oral legacy. Most of the epics are about the era of the Ottoman occupation and the struggle for the liberation from it.
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Serbian folk poetry was given a marvelous reception, as it appeared in Europe when Romanticism was in full bloom. Jacob Grimm began to learn Serbian so that he could read the poems in the original. He wrote minute analyses of each new volume of Serbian folk songs. He ranked them as being equal to the Song of Songs, as did Goethe somewhat later.
Gusle are a national instrument in Montenegro and fundamental to national music, folklore and tradition. The instrument was very common in Kosovo and Albania, specially in the mountain regions such as Malsia.
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Gender-specific analyses were performed where possible in order to highlight the differences in the professional objectives and workloads between female and male physicians. Results: The study shows that both the practical and the theoretical components of postgraduate medical education in Germany are insufficient.
There is a lack of a curriculum with precise learning objectives and descriptions of the corresponding educational settings. In fact, the act of learning is identical to daily clinical work. There is no structuring of the work process with regard to learning; for example, documentation procedures and feedback discussions are prescribed but largely omitted. The summative final oral examination pretends that the necessary specialist competencies can be evaluated within 30 minutes.
Many factors indicate that female doctors, especially those with children, have fewer learning opportunities than male doctors. Conclusion: The quality of postgraduate medical education in Germany has become inadequate, especially in an international comparison. The deficits are well known. The responsible institutions are called upon to implement sustainable reforms in the sense of postgraduate education that is structured according to educational principles and whose quality is assured.
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In all industrialized countries, the process of qualifying doctors is traditionally divided into two phases: undergraduate medical education UGE and, subsequently, postgraduate medical education PGE , also called postgraduate training or vocational training. In Europe, both phases have a comparable real duration of approximately years in most countries [ 1 ]. In reality, PGE is completely steered by the chambers. While a plethora of political and scientific institutions and organizations comment on UGE, postgraduate education is almost completely out of public view.
As a result, there have been only few studies and memoranda on PGE in Germany [ 2 ], [ 3 ], [ 4 ], [ 5 ], [ 6 ], [ 7 ], [ 8 ], [ 9 ], [ 10 ]. Questions concerning the future supply and demand of physicians play a role in the debates surrounding UGE, but this not the case with PGE.
The KarMed study uses annual, standardised questionnaires to follow the graduates until they acquire their licenses as specialist physicians, including primary care specialists. This paper examines, firstly, the question of how the theoretical and practical components of PGE are actually administered and acquired in the training hospitals. It also examines how the residents, on the one hand, and the Chambers of Physicians, on the other, assess the quality of the training.
Special attention is given to gender differences. Residents were followed using annually administered, standardised questionnaires during the period of their training from graduation to their licensure as a specialist physician. The results presented in this paper refer to the end of the fourth year of residency. In a few cases, results from previous KarMed surveys are also presented.
Due to limitations of scope, reference must be made here to other KarMed publications [ 11 ], [ 12 ], [ 13 ], [ 14 ], [ 15 ], [ 16 ].
For the specific problems of PGE for primary care, we refer to separate publications [ 17 ], [ 18 ]. For further details on the methodology of the KarMed study see the paper by Ziegler et al. For details on the KarMed cohort see Ziegler et al. Medical residents in Germany have the status of a physician employed by the hospital. They work full-time in the hospital without any protected time for research or educational activities.
Training positions are not allocated; residents have to locate and apply for a position within the hospital labour market on their own. The employment contract does not contain any significant regulation regarding the educational entitlements and duties of the resident. There is no written agreement between the mentor and the resident describing the educational obligations of both sides. The resident receives a full salary on the basis of the annual negotiations between the national trade union of physicians and the hospital trustee associations.
Extra payment is provided for night and weekend duties.
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Current contracts vary between As a result of this contractual status, residents are fully involved in the treatment of inpatients and outpatients in daily hospital care. Residents learn how to deal with a variety of patients and their conditions in all units of their discipline in- and outpatient wards, intensive care, operating theatres etc.
The assignment to units and tasks is the responsibility of the chief physician of the department.
Residents are assigned to units according to a simple scheme based on their presumed maturity e. The extent to which the qualification of the individual resident is considered in these assignments may vary see section 3. PGE is therefore characterized by learning on the job with very few organized learning events e. These regulations contain the following essential rules:.
Minimum numbers of procedures to be performed operations, diagnostic interventions contained in so-called "catalogues". The obligation to document the procedures described above annually in a "logbook", to be signed by the mentor of the resident.
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